杜爾瑟‧洽宮(Dulce Chacón, 1954-2003)是西班牙本世紀具有影響力的女性作家,也是畢生關注女性邊緣處境及倡導為(內戰)受害者/戰敗者發聲的文壇女鬥士。《陶泥的天空》(Cielos de barro)於 2000 年出版,獲得當年 Premio Azorín 的文學獎項,是洽宮重要的小說作品。故事的場景位於 Extremadura 自治區的 Los Negrales 莊園,在時空上,橫跨西班牙第二共和、內戰及戰後佛朗哥獨裁時期。《陶泥的天空》是蘊含顛覆特質的後現代小說。作家巧妙地運用混雜的敘事手法,包括了年邁、不識字、貧窮的社會底層代表-製陶工人安東尼(Antonio)的敘事者聲音,交替第三人稱全知敘事者以冷漠而不帶情感的口吻,提供社會底層經濟現況及回顧西班牙部分內戰經驗,終究導致連環謀殺案的發生。透過文本相互指涉的引用,《陶泥的天空》在結構上,是相當多元、具混雜性,包括偵探小說、歌德小說及見證小說文類等元素。洽宮也聚焦於內戰及戰後期間西國富豪與窮人之間的社會不平等關係,透過莊園地主 Paredes Soler 家族欺壓僕人的故事,探究一個充滿復仇、不公平、創傷、暴力及仇恨的過去。
本論文將援引琳達 ‧ 哈欽(Linda Hutcheon)的後現代理論,試圖分析洽宮如何運用混雜的文類使《陶泥的天空》的人物角色重建個人及歷史的記憶,進而建構個人的身分認同。我們也將深入探討記憶的意涵,檢視社會正義的平復,更生個人記憶與集體記憶的倫理秩序。
Dulce Chacón (1954-2003) has been considered one of the most influential female writers in contemporary Spain and also a brave fighter dedicated to showing concern for the marginal situation of women and giving voice to the victims and the defeated of the Spanish Civil War. Winner of the 2000 Azorín Prize, Cielos de barro (Clayed Colored Skies) is an important novel by Chacón. The novel is set in a farmhouse of Extremadura, “Los Negrales” estate, and takes place during the periods of the Second Republic, the Spanish Civil War, and Franco’s post-Civil War regime. Cielos de barro is a clear example of the subversive nature of postmodern narrative. Chacón constructs a hybrid narrative where two narrators (the old and rustic potter Antonio and the omniscient third-person narrator) provide information pertaining to the events leading up to a multiple murder at a rural estate. Through intertextual allusions to certain works, Cielos de barro demonstrates hybrid elements of detective fiction, the gothic novel, and the testimonial novel. Chacón also focuses on the conflicted relations between rich and poor in Civil War and post-Civil War Spain through the narration of the family saga of three generations of the rich Paredes Soler and their servants in order to unearth a past full of revenge, injustice, violence, trauma, and hatred.
Taking Linda Hutcheon’s postmodern theory as a starting point, the present study aims to analyze how Chacón uses the hybridization of literary genres in order that Cielos de barro’s characters will reconstruct their personal and historical memories and establish their own identities. Furthermore, it examines the significance of memory in greater depth, exploring issues related to the reclamation of social justice and the restoring of the ethical order of individual and collective memories.